Russia has launched its biggest military exercise since the Cold War, involving about 300,000 service personnel, in eastern Siberia.
China is sending 3,200 troops to take part in "Vostok-2018", with many Chinese armored vehicles and aircraft. Mongolia is also sending some units.
The last Russian exercise of similar scale was in 1981, during the Cold War, but Vostok-2018 involves more troops. The week-long manoeuvres come at a time of heightened Nato-Russia tensions.
As the exercises began, Vladimir Putin met his Chinese counterpart Xi Jinping at a forum in the eastern city of Vladivostok.
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