Sustainable and inclusive development strategy is the global objective for emerging economy. Bangladesh is aiming to be a developed country within 2041 and a huge and comprehensive development program is undertaken by adopting Bangladesh Delta plan 2100. To mitigate various challenges for achieving the goal of this plan, application and maximum utilization of internal resources will be pivotal. Jute is a natural renewable fibrous biomass, traditionally used as a raw material for the production of packaging materials. It has similarity both with cotton and wood.
It is a versatile fibre having the characteristic properties of soft and hard fibers. And it is identified as recyclable, reusable and environment-friendly. Awide range of vertical and horizontal diversified environmental friendly products can be manufactured from it.
Jute and Jute products are not only environment-friendly but also their wide application protect environmental degradation and prevent soil and climate deterioration. Reduction of carbon footprint, water footprint in buildings/constructions and green technology is currently attracting global attention as rapid climate change and global warming has become a major concern and challenge of 21st century for sustainable and eco-friendly development. Moreover, extensive applications of jute and diversified jute products in different development activities will enhance poverty reduction, employment generation in rural Bangladesh which also increase GDP percentage and inclusive development objective of the government.
Jute is a ligno-cellulosic crop fiber plant. It is a renewable source of biomass of bast fibers. It is a coarse fiber having high tensile strength and tenacity, traditionally used as a raw material for the production of packaging materials. It is biodegradable, photo-degradable, thermal-degradable, high strength, non-plastic, nontoxic, high-water and ultra-violate-absorbing capacities, visco-elasticity, and crystalline cellulosic properties and porosity, permeability, capillarity and hydraulic qualities reflect its additional potentiality for geo-textile and technical textiles. On the other hand hard, brittle crystalline characteristic properties are very potential for different composite products which can replace glass, carbon, asbestos, wood and synthetic composite materials. And as a cellulosic fiber it has great potential as a raw material for pulp/paper, paper products and cellulose derivatives.
Jute, Kenaf and Mesta together are called as Jute and Allied Fibers (JAF). They are mainly cultivated in the equatorial, the topical and sub-topical zones and has a similar pattern of geographical distribution as they are related to phylo-genetically and their origin in Egypt and Indo-china. Major jute growing countries are Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Brazil, Vietnam, Ivory Coast etc. Jute is C3 type of plant of photo-reactive and high photosynthesis efficiency. Soil, water and climate of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India are very conducive for the cultivation of jute and allied fibers and more than 85% raw jute produced here.
Climate change is the greatest threat to human rights and civilization. Jute cultivation is the most rational and effective way for carbon fixation to mitigate climate change. And about 14 million peoples mostly poor in 18 countries of Asia and Africa are involved in jute cultivation and manufacturing activities. And it can also be used as protective and adaptive activities for addressing climate change problems in various development activities. Thus jute and jute products are rational alternatives for poverty reduction, employment generation and uphold inclusive development for humanity.
This coarse fiber is mostly used for packaging materials such as twines, hessian, gunny bags, sacking cloth (A-Twill, B-Twill, L-Twill), burlaps,canvas, webbing carpet backing clothes, tarpaulin, soil saver/geojute, scrim fabrics, floor mats, wall covers,heavy cees and wide range of yarns and fabrics etc. are available in market with different specifications and quality according to consumer's needs.
Diversified Jute products
A wide range of woven, non-woven, textile, non-textile, pulp-paper, cellulose derivatives, decorative, blended, non-blended, vertical and horizontal diversified jute and jute products can be produced and their related technologies are also available.
These products again classified into (1) fibers-based products (paper products, composites, novocell fiber, jute poly, juttin, cellulose and cellulose derivatives for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products), (2) yarn-based products (fine, various treated and modified yarn and yarn products), (3) fabric-based products (light, designed, colored, blended/union, jutton, woollenized, photostable products etc. ), (4) various handicrafts (bags, parses, boxes, folder protective, decoratives etc.) , (5) garments and apparels (suiting, shirting, scarf, home textiles floor mates, carpets etc.), (6)special and functional textiles (geo, agro, medicare, sports, environmental and furnishing, venetian blind, buckram etc) and (7) special products (charcoal, activated charcoal, carbon fiber, MCC, dyes and chemicals etc.)
Technologies and process for diversification of jute uses
1. Jute fine and blended yarns technologies.
2. Integrated wet processing.
3. Jute blended denim and other apparels.
4. Production technologies for MCC and cellulose derivatives.
5. Paat-wool and denim production and shoe production technologies.
6. Jute and jute ribbon and jute stick base handicrafts, household products, and handmade paper products.
7. Knitting technology-based jute products.
8. Carbon fiber, carbon black, charcoal, activated charcoal, fuel cake/pellet from jute, jute sticks, jute mill waste.
9. Chemical and enzymatic, bleaching, modification technology of jute and jute products.
10. Photo-stable bleaching and dyeing technology of jute and jute products.
11. Pretreatments technologies of jute and jute products.
12. Dyes/dyeing, printing technology of jute and jute products with different chemicals commercial dyes, pigments, photo-stable dyes, vegetables and natural products.
13. Acetylation and other modification for fire retardant, rot resistance, water repellency etc. Of jute and jute products. And different absorbing and protecting technologies.
14. Wood and metallic substitutes from jute sliver.
Jute goods in the context of Climate change
Climate change is a natural phenomenon. But rapid change caused by extensive utilization of natural resources particularly nonrenewable resources for accelerated developmental activities by developed and rich countries are the major issues concerned for present-day worldwide challenge. The adverse effects of climate change are already evident. Bangladesh is the worst sufferer of global climate change and its contribution to climate change is almost invisible in comparison with the following five countries which are responsible for environmental pollution (figure-1).
Similarly sector wise annual greenhouse gases emission is given figure-2.
Save nature, save earth, clean climate, green technology, save life and green economy so many high sounding discussion and talk, seminar- symposium, conference, declaration continuously held in different parts of the world for mitigation, prevention and adoption to protect from environmental deterioration after earth summit in 1992, Brazil and subsequent COP.
And subsequently fund creation and management and planning to combat climate deterioration, numbers of Cop meetings were held in different cities. The last one was held between 2 and 15 December 2018 in Katowice, Poland where the Polish presidency declared a "forests for climate", but unfortunately Amazon is burning. Ultimately the positive decision was made for fund creation and management and take appropriate measures jointly to combat climate change.
But nothing positive yet happened. Industrialized countries are responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases and global warming. In 2009 Copenhagen declaration proposed measures to keep the average global temperature rise 2ºC. But still it is not clear which will be based year 1990 or 2005. Thus climate change is going on. In Kyoto Protocol chalk-out some courses about carbon-trade, climate fund for mitigation, prevention and adaptation of various measures to protect climate deterioration and reduce greenhouse effects. Presently, climate change is the most critical global natural issue needs widest possible co-operation by all countries and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, in accordance with their common but, differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and their social and economic conditions.
Climate Change and Bangladesh
Global temperature is rising sharply. It has created most of the problems for, particularly, Bangladesh and similar other island countries. Bangladesh is a deltaic low lying riverine country of 147570 square kilometers with a large coastline of 720 km of Bay of Bengal. More than 310 big and small rivers crisscross it, the total length of rivers, streams, creeks, channel is 24140 km and there are 1.3 million ponds (147000 ha) and 10,000 Haors, Baors and Beels. Its soils are old alluvial, recent alluvial and hill soils.
As a country of tropic of cancer with which a tropical monsoon climate characterized by heavy seasonal rainfall around 2500 mm per annum. Bangladesh is flood-prone plain land. One third of its land is inundated with water with normal rainy seasonal flood water, waterlogging, riverbed rising and flow changing and riverbank erosion, abnormal uses of groundwater causing drought, deforestation and desertification along with heavy uses of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides create additional a threat to natural fishes, aqua-culture and flora-fauna as a whole causing declination of biodiversity and natural landscape.
Effect on infrastructure/development
Recently Bangladesh entered into lower middle-income groups. Its economy is mostly pivotal around the agriculture sector. Its industrialization is just initiated by jute, textiles and garments, fertilizer, pharmaceutical etc. Infrastructures and communications are yet to develop. Loamy and soft soils are very vulnerable for any civil and bioengineering constructions which need stabilization, consolidation, re-enforcement and changing agents. River/sea-shore erosion, hill slop sliding etc. is a common phenomenon. Thus road and highways railways, air-runways, river-ways and barrage and bridge constructions become the most costly and limited life span. Moreover previous flood control and irrigation system, without considering long term effect on the ecosystem already created unbalance in socio-economic condition of the country.
Dr ABM Abdullah and Dr MMM Rahman are professors at Department of Textile Engineering, School of Engineering, Primeasia University, Dhaka. Md Bokhtiar Rahman is in the Department of of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur.
----Dr ABM Abdullah, Dr MMM Rahman and Md Bokhtiar Rahman
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