Dilip Mahalanabis is an Indian pediatrician known for pioneering the use of oral rehydration therapy to treat diarrheal diseases. In the mid-1960s he did research on cholera and other diarrheal diseases at the Johns Hopkins International Center for Medical Research and Training in Calcutta, India. During the Bangladesh's war for independence he led the effort by the Johns Hopkins Center that demonstrated the dramatic life-saving effectiveness of oral rehydration therapy when cholera broke out in 1971 among refugees from East Bengal (now Bangladesh) who had sought asylum in West Bengal. he was a medical officer in the Diarrheal Disease Control Programme of the WHO. Later in the 1990s, he served as the Director of Clinical Research at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B), Bangladesh. In 1994, Mahalanabis was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
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