Published:  12:52 AM, 22 June 2020

Contribution and potentiality of artificial insemination producing milk and meat

Contribution and potentiality of artificial insemination producing milk and meat

Artificial insemination of a cow is a process of placing semen to cow's vagina after collecting from a bull's penis. It is possible to breed 60-70 cows per year from an ordinary bull. Around 5,000-10,000 cows can be bred through this artificial insemination.

In 1956, the first artificial breeding system was introduced in Ishwardi, Saidpur and Chattogram for the development of breeding and prevention of cattle diseases. Later, the Central Cattle Breeding Center was set up at Savar during 1981-89 and a number of equipments and equipment including infrastructure development were procured with the help of the German government.

The then Prime Minister of Bangladesh and Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman gave utmost importance to agriculture. Through his dedicated efforts, the journey of artificial insemination was started in 1983 by donating 125 Friesian and Jersey bulls through an Australian based charity organization.

During 1975-76, cow breeding center were set up in 22 districts of the country for artificial insemination and grass production. Frozen semen was used locally in artificial breeding activities during 1987-89. Later, these activities were further expanded across the country.

Like Bangabandhu, his worthy daughter and incumbent Prime Minster Sheikh Hasina has also took up various development activities with utmost importance on agriculture.

As a result, the Department of Livestock under the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock of the Government of Bangladesh undertook a project titled "Expansion of Artificial Breeding Activities and Implementation of Embryo Transplantation Technology" in 2016 in order to increase milk and meat production in the country.

The first and second phase of the project has successfully been completed and the third phase is underway.? From 2008 to 2009, 6 lakh doses of semen were used for artificial insemination in the country, which amounted to 42 lakh doses during 2010-2019.

So far 52 lakh cows have been brought under artificial insemination under the project. To ensure artificial insemination services across the country through ongoing projects, artificial insemination points will be introduced in each union and 3500 points have already been introduced. The project has already trained 60 AI and 650 FA technicians. All trained technicians are working at artificial insemination points.

The construction work of Bull Station cum Artificial Reproduction Lab in Faridpur and Chittagong is almost complete. Construction work of mini bull station cum artificial insemination lab in Sylhet, Bogura and Barisal has also been almost completed and construction work in Khulna and Rangpur is underway at a fast pace.

Sexed semen has already been imported for making nucleus hard at Savar Dairy Farm. 162 bulls and calves have already been collected for breeding bulls. Of them, 65 bulls have been selected. Each bull will indirectly contribute Tk 533.03 crore to the national economy in a year.

The rest of the bulls are ready for selection. Construction work is underway to set up a TMR demonstration plant at Savar to ensure a balanced cow feed. Through this project, AI workers are providing 52% of total services at farm level. Semen production and artificial insemination has increased.

As this project has been going on for a long time, the production of meat and milk in the country has increased tremendously. The demand for meat in our country is 7.63 million metric tons. The current production is 8.18 million metric tons which means 0.43 million metric tons is being produced more than the demand.

The daily per capita demand for meat is 120 grams but each gets 124.99 grams. On the other hand, our milk demand is 14.69 million metric tons and 99.23 million metric tons is being produced annually. The per capita demand per day is 165.08 ml out of 250 ml. The production process is being run and the deficit will soon be met.

Milk is being used in many ways such as pasteurized, condensed, chocolate etc as the production of milk in the country has increased several times more than before. Besides, valuable products like cream, butter, ghee, butter, sweets etc are being made of milk. Because of the construction of these processing industries, a wide range of people has got employment opportunities.?

During the coronavirus and post-corona period, the demand for meat will increase across the world. As of June 2019, the population of the country is producing less than the estimated demand of 168 million milk but a part of the people of the country cannot eat milk or milk based food due to physical problems. Awareness of a section of poor class of the country as well as economic reasons are not able to consume regular quantity of milk.

Due to this a large part of the milk produced in the country remains unsold or the dairy farmers has to sell at low prices. In this situation, if excess produced meat and processed milk are exported, the country will earn foreign exchange.

Besides, if this sector is expanded due to demand, a large number of people will get employment opportunities. The government has already focused on creating an export market abroad, which will create employment opportunities as well as foreign exchange earnings if implemented.

Recently, the Ambassador of Egypt met the  Minister of the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Sham Rezaul Karim, and informed him about the huge potential of Bangladesh to export animal meat to foreign markets.

TMR is a balanced diet for cattle that contains all the necessary nutrients. As a result, the production of milk and meat increases. In addition, the use of TMR machines will reduce dependency on workers. Using technology, bulls and cows will be tagged by ear and the data will be stored in the central data repository through mobile apps. Through this, breeding workers will be able to select the right semen by looking at the tagging data during artificial insemination.

The bull or goat's DNA will be tested and matched with the tested parent's DNA. As a result, there is no need to wait long for the results of the progeny test. This will reduce the generation interval and increase the productivity of cattle. In addition, it is necessary to consider the issue of importing 100% Shahiwala bulls or semen considering the demand of the farmers at the field level.

On the other hand, as the number of artificial insemination has increased across the country, I think it is necessary to consider setting up a liquid nitrogen plant under the management of the Department of Livestock. Through the artificial insemination project, the protein will be supplied besides the artificial insemination workers are introducing the farmers to modernization.

--Krishibid Dr Belal Hossain

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