Bangladesh is vulnerable to climate disasters because of its geographical position. Due to sea-level rise, lack of drinking water, drought-like situations, river erosion, loss of biodiversity, effects of extreme weather-like frequent floods and cyclones, Bangladesh is at high risk of facing climate migration in the greater context. In this aspect, a comprehensive measure is highly required to deal with climate change adaptation strategy as well as confront climate migration in search of a comparatively sustainable solution.
Excessive emission of carbon, the erratic presence of methane, and other greenhouse gases like-nitrous oxide, CFC, ozone, etc. have been turning the earth's surface intensely hot and excessively warmer. The industrially developed nations are mostly responsible for such chronic creation of greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere globally. But a country like Bangladesh is fighting hard and enduring most because of inconvenient geo-position, and merely experiencing the impacts of climate adversity enormously. Consequently, some unforeseen impacts of climate change have already entangled our bio-diversity, life and livelihood, and socio-economic perspectives of the country's climate-vulnerable communities.
A study conducted by Action Aid has disclosed recently that by 2050 almost three million people of our country shall be forced to migrate if the global communities, the utter largely responsible rich countries, fail to reduce global warming within a rise of two degrees since the pre-industrial period-a goal which was set by the Paris Agreement earlier. Therefore, it is exigent for our country to bargain with the global leaders on the ground of limiting extra-spell carbon emission. It is for sure that we do not have sufficient backup resources, cash funds, and technical capacities to combat the impacts of climate change in gross. Otherwise, our efforts to lessen the magnitude of the total climate change vulnerability with our limited resources will surely lead tougher in this regard.
As the water level of the Bay of Bengal is in sharp raising-trend over the last couple of years, the intrusion of saltwater and salinity has compelled many of the coastal population to migrate elsewhere centering lives and livelihoods. People of those climatologically threatened and calamities-prone districts, on the whole, migrate to their preferred regions to survive anew. This climate-driven bulklarge human influx will carry severe impacts on life and the economy holistically in multiple instances.
Most of the people living near the coastal areas depend on shrimp cultivation and salt production. Their means of survival get disrupted, destroyed, and threatened as well by whimsical and precarious natural disasters like cyclones, floods, and drought, erosion, etc. almost every year. As the nearby inshore land areas cannot retain themselves suitable enough for agriculture and cultivating green stuff, so the climate victims from those districts frequently tire out with the limited scope of livelihood, and search for alternative means of living for their existence.
As a result, we know, a good number of people who have experienced climate adversities, migrate to the capital Dhaka in search of shelter and jobs. But the overburdened city cannot tackle such a continuous influx of population forced by climate disasters and climate disruption. If we look we can find that the present condition of Dhaka city regarding its dwelling standard is surely messed up. With the lack of the major indexes of living standards, a tag of being most densely as well as poor air quality city in the atlas, has been transfigured into a severe stage of endurance. On top of that, if the city is to get such an overflow of climate migration, we no morecan think well than ever of the capital Dhaka.
Rehabilitation with extending livelihood advantages for the climate vulnerable communities should get prioritized. To mitigate the risks of climate change, and alleviate the impoverishment and fatality resulted from global climate, the issuance of necessary supports from the responsible developed countries is capitally substantial. In that case, our country needs to bargain successfully for getting required climate funds (cash supports) from the global initiators cornered with world climate change. Otherwise, we have to face many hurdles to mitigate the inevitable risks of climate migration in the days ahead.
Concerned policymakers and climate think tanks of our country have to think of adopting projected strategies to support climate migrants to mitigate the loss of their homes and jobs. As most of them are deprived of minimal scope for subsistence, the climate victims-usually losing all their resources-find life tremendously measurable, and head to elsewhere dreaming of dwelling anew. Therefore, befitting initiatives taken for catering jobs, and assurance of money generations (earnings) will shorten the rate of climate vulnerability and migration tendency among the utterly huge floating folk.
Budgetary allocations should augment to scale down misery and protect the vulnerable population. By the way, a pragmatic investment might be ensured to develop climate-resilient and climate-friendly infrastructures and to invent a variety of salt-tolerant crops in agriculture. A far-reaching master scheme in a bid to create substitutes for earnings is veritably essential. To augment the opportunity for livelihood, realistic projects of launching vocational and technical training will originate a positive prospect for the climate distress.
All quarters must limit the greenhouse gas emissions to protect the planet earth from the gradual threat of climate change. Policy assistance for nationally determined contributions (NDC) along with empirical plans have to be executed also in the country's territory. Albeit, it is no more a sole issue for Bangladesh, yet we must practice green policies in respect of energy consumption and generation. Changing our lifestyle will work significantly to cut back the unnecessary emission of carbon in the homeland. It might work as the 'good of evil' and as the last but not the least resort. We the commoners and the sufferers hope, pragmatic mitigation and adaptation schemes to confront climate migration and to ease the long-endurance must be initiated by the state authority without having any delay. By the way, whatever we can, we ought to work in joint hands from our respective domain with our variant capacities to confront the grave shock of climate change and climate migration issues.
Wares Ali Khan is an Academic and Development Counselor