Technical textiles are the textiles in which more technical are involved. It has lot of advantageous in all sides. Among these, we explained about agro textiles, automotive textiles, geo textiles, medical textiles, protective textiles, smart textiles. Textiles are no more limited for use as apparels clothing is just are but not the only purpose of textiles with the rapid changes in the social economic structure of our society. Many efforts are made to some and protect human life. Textiles come to our help in every walk of life. Similarly, textiles enhancing the quality of human life trough protection against various hazards as well as protections of environment are today's priorities were scientist all around the world are breaking their heads.
Technical textiles are the fastest growing area of textile consumption in the world. As per the market survey it has projected an average growth rate of 4% for technical textiles during the period 1995-2005.In most of the developed countries, technical textiles already account for 4% of the total textile production. Even in many developing countries, the proportion is well above 10%. At present, India's contribution in this area is negligible at about 0.2%.However, due to competition from neighboring countries ad emerging economic power, India has tremendous potential for production, Consumption and export of technical textile.
In the circumstances, textiles are playing major role through its diversified applications and undoubtedly the future of this technical textiles appears tom be bright in this, lot of uses are there. They are medical textiles, protective textiles, agricultural textiles, geo textiles, automotive textiles, smart textiles and industrial textiles. Technical textiles, also known as smart textiles, are made from a variety of fibers and filaments based on the goal of the end product. Manufacturers use both natural and manmade raw materials. Natural fibers are predominant, including cotton, jute, silk and coir. Manmade materials account for 40% of total fiber consumption across the entire textile industry, including items like viscose, nylon, acrylic and polypropylene. Unlike materials made from traditional textiles, technical textiles offer value to the wearer.
They can do several things traditional fabrics can't. Technical textiles can be antibacterial, insect-proof, flame retardant, odorless and much more, allowing the wearer to reduce risks and bodily harm. Other materials can communicate, conduct energy, regulate body heat, display visuals and provide cosmetic effects. The technical textile industry is rapidly advancing, with 60% of all products worldwide made with fibers not marketed 50 years ago.
In fact, back then 30% of the products sold today weren't yet invented .The textile sector is the source of over 80 percent of foreign exchange earnings in Bangladesh; it is called the country's economic backbone. The garment industry's growth rate in 2019 was 11.49 percent, compared to 7.8 percent in 2017. However, growth has slowed down due to Covid-19. To continue the growth trend, the government has set up a few textile colleges, including a textile university. However, challenges remain, which we bring to the fore to address key issues that are critical to improving the textile engineering colleges.
There are seven textile colleges in Bangladesh; several more are under construction. Each college trains about 480 students. In Pabna Textile Engineering College, it was found that there are four assistant professors, eight lecturers, six t-instructors, and a few other teachers, but no professors. The conditions of the new colleges are deplorable. The first problem in every college is a crisis of teachers. However, there is a crisis of departmental teachers and technicians in textile education. Students cannot make much progress due to the lack of seminars, as well as required information and useful guidelines. Consequently, they are very frustrated, and many students want to pursue higher education abroad.
Thus, the progress of the nation's engineering colleges and the quality of the graduates are questionable. Where research is the lifeblood of an engineering institution, these colleges do not have a budget for research, nor do they have trained technicians and faculty. One wonders why a decent budget is not allocated to conduct research in our engineering colleges. Let us also take a glance at the curriculum. The truth is that many of the subjects are old-fashioned. Although the industries have become modern in keeping pace with the times, the curriculum has remained the same. Students also have a two-month long internship in the last semester and a "mill inspection" every semester to improve their technical capacity.
These experiences could be improved in great measure. Graduating students thus face a very embarrassing situation when they land their first jobs in the industry: The present world also demands a move from traditional textile to technical textile. The entire sector needs to change in tandem with the needs of the rest of the world. And for this, we need a rich technical education system based on research. About four million people are directly or indirectly involved in this sector in Bangladesh, where only three lakh people were employed in 2000. In most of the factories, foreign engineers occupy the top positions due to a lack of skilled local engineers.
The world has seen increased globalization and outsourcing in recent years, resulting in a dramatic change in how operations work in sectors such as textiles. With the development of newer and better textiles, there is an increasing need to enhance their quality and effectiveness. The global demand for technical textiles has also grown.It is an emerging field of sophisticated technology that is steadily gaining ground in India, among other places Additionally, high demand from various sectors, such as construction and automotive, has resulted in growth for the technical textile sector.
The textile industry also recognizes areas of technical textiles that need to be developed, and it is contributing adequate time and money to these areas. Such efforts are paying off, as advanced textiles are gaining traction worldwide.Technical textiles are engineered products with a definite functionality. They are manufactured using natural as well as man-made fibres such as Nomex, Kevlar, Spandex, Twaron that exhibit enhanced functional properties such as higher tenacity, excellent insulation, improved thermal resistance etc. These products find end-use application across multiple non-conventional textile industries such as healthcare, construction, automobile, aerospace, sports, defence, and agriculture.
Taking cognizance of technological advancements, countries are aligning their industries to accommodate technical textiles. This shift is evident in India's textile sector as well, moving from traditional textiles to technical textiles. The invention of speciality fibres and their incorporation in almost all areas suggest that the importance of technical textiles is only going to increase in the future.
Rayhan Ahmed is a writer, researcher and columnist.
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