Bangladesh has been seeing a tremendous increase in garbage generation as one of South Asia's economies that is urbanizing the fastest. There is a variance in collection efficiency across urban and rural local government bodies across the country, ranging from 37 percent to 77 percent, and an average of 55 percent of solid waste, particularly plastic and polyethylene items remains uncollected in metropolitan regions. The process of handling trash, from its creation to its ultimate disposal, is known as waste management. As well as monitoring and regulating the process of waste management and waste-related legislation, technology, and economic mechanisms, this also encompasses the collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of trash.It can come from sources such as radioactive waste, industrial trash, biological waste, municipal waste, organic waste, biomedical waste, agricultural waste, commercial garbage, demolition waste, and waste resulting from construction. It can also be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Health problems can arise both directly from handling solid waste and inadvertently from consuming water, soil, and food, for instance, during the extraction and processing of raw materials.
The projected amount of garbage generation was 6493 tons in 1991, but due to the population boom, that amount more than doubled to 13,332 tons by 2005. the estimated amount of waste output is expected to be 47,000 tons by 2025. Urban local government bodies are in charge of managing garbage, yet they lack the ability and motivation to do so. Due to this, Dhaka must manage about 6,500 tons of waste per day, and by 2032, this amount is expected to rise. Solid waste contributes to gases that coagulate the ozone layer, exacerbate weather, melts ice caps, raise sea levels, and hurts natural habitats as well as the homes of billions of residents.The environment-friendly recycling of solid waste, such as paper, cartons, metal, plastic, pet bottles, and e-waste, was not ensured by any programs. However, a nearby startup called BD Recycle (www.bdrecycle.com) is now organizing and digitizing solid waste recycling. A web and Android app from BD Recycle allows users to purchase waste from businesses, families, and manufacturers. City companies manage daily waste transportation from secondary container sites to landfills while private contractors handle primary rubbish collection. by using concrete boundary walls in the wards to keep accumulated trash out of sight and stop the smell from spreading. Their reliance on dumpsters for the final disposal of waste, however, is a dubious option for a land-scarce country.
In Bangladesh's rural areas, waste management is a major issue because when waste is dumped anywhere, it rots and has an offensive stench, polluting the air, water, and land. Numerous microorganisms feed on trash and produce a variety of dangerous diseases. Global warming is produced by rotten trash. Due to surface runoff from rains, waste decomposition commonly pollutes open water sources (such as rivers, ponds, lakes, etc.). It depletes the oxygen in the water, harming fish, bacteria, fungi, and other living things.The Dhaka Municipal Ordinance, 1983; the Environment Policy, 2018 (amendment); the Urban Management Policy Statement, 1998; the Environment Conservation Rule, 1997; and the Factory Act, 1965 are a few examples of current laws governing trash management. Recently, Bangladesh has made improvements to trash management, particularly in metropolitan areas. A master plan is currently being implemented by DCC with assistance from the JICA to improve solid waste management in Dhaka.
The 55 % of waste that isn't collected ends up in drainage systems and water bodies, clogging water flow and damaging air, soil, and groundwater. Poor waste management has a serious detrimental seriously on the ecosystem and biodiversity. Mismanagement of waste negatively impacts many habitats and species, and it also contributes to climate change, water, land, and air pollution. It also causes plant death. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas linked to climate change, is released by landfills, which are the last resort in the waste hierarchy.The toxicity of the water renders freshwater unfit for human consumption. Solid waste contributes to the gases that thicken the ozone layer, worsen the weather, melt the ice caps, raise the sea level, and negatively affect natural habitats and the homes of billions of people. Land pollution occurs whenever waste ends up on soil or another land. Long-term effects result from the increased emissions we make as a result of the amount of rubbish we produce. The health of people can be impacted by several conditions, including asthma, birth defects, cancer, cardiovascular disease, child cancer, COPD, infectious diseases, low birth weight, and premature delivery.
A substantial volume of recyclable waste may be recycled each year for a high market value thanks to the 3Rs approach (reduce, reuse, and recycle). Additionally, the waste composition's higher proportion of organic materials (70%) contributes to the availability of composting fertilizers. By raising crop productivity by 25-30% and decreasing the need for chemical fertilizers by 35-40%, using organic fertilizers can increase food security while also creating jobs and lowering greenhouse gas emissions.However, policy change, waste minimization, segregation, and recycling at all stages, the relevant authority must be held accountable, modern technology must be used to develop sewage and industrial waste treatment plants, a movement must be mobilized, and education and training must be provided, laws must be enforced, the community must work in partnership with government, private, and international agencies, and waste behaviors must change for creating sustainability as well as for the achievement of sustainable cities and communities (SDG- 11) and other goals such as affordable and clean energy (SDG- 7).
Mohammad Al-Amin is a Student, Public Administration, Comilla University